# Binary signal in computer terms

The place value of a digit in a number refers to the position of the digit in that number i. The total value of a number is the sum of the place value of each digit making the number.

The base value of a number also k known as the radix , depends on the type of the number systems that is being used. The value of any number depends on the radix.

It uses two digits namely, 1 and 0 to represent numbers. Octal number system Consists of eight digits ranging from A hexadecimal number can be denoted using 16 as a subscript or capital letter H to the right of the number.

For example, 94B can be written as 94B16 or 94BH. Further conversion of numbers from one number system to another To convert numbers from one system to another.

Converting between binary and decimal numbers. Converting octal numbers to decimal and binary form. Converting hexadecimal numbers to decimal and binary form. First, write the place values starting from the right hand side. Write each digit under its place value. Multiply each digit by its corresponding place value. Add up the products.

The answer will be the decimal number in base ten. The binary equivalent of the fractional part is extracted from the products by reading the respective integral digits from the top downwards as shown by the arrow next page. Combine the two parts together to set the binary equivalent. Solution Convert the integral and the fractional parts separately then add them up.

For the fractional part, proceed as follows: Multiply the fractional part by 2 and note down the product Take the fractional part of the immediate product and multiply it by 2 again.

Continue this process until the fractional part of the subsequent product is 0 or starts to repeat itself. The following examples illustrate how to convert hexadecimal number to a decimal numberExample Convert octal number 8 to its binary equivalent Solution Working from left to the right, each octal number is represented using three digits and then combined we get the final binary equivalent.

Converting hexadecimal numbers to decimal number To convert hexadecimal number to base 10 equivalent we proceed as follows: However, it is important to note that the maximum absolute value of a octal digit is 7. For example Is not a valid octal number because digit 9 is not an octal digit, but 8 is valid because all the digits are in the range Example shows how to convert an octal number to a decimal number.

Octal digit Binary equivalents 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Example Convert the hexadecimal number 16 to its binary equivalent. Solution Place each number under its place value.

In computing, a single character such as a letter, a number or a symbol is represented by a group of bits. The number of bits per character depends on the coding scheme used. The most common coding schemes are: For example, a number like 9 can be represented using Binary Coded Decimal as 2.

Binary Coded Decimal is mostly used in simple electronic devices like calculators and microwaves. This is because it makes it easier to process and display individual numbers on their Liquid Crystal Display LCD screens. A standard Binary Coded Decimal , an enhanced format of Binary Coded Decimal, is a 6-bit representation scheme which can represent non-numeric characters. This allows 64 characters to be represented.

A total of 2 8 characters can be coded using this scheme. For example, the symbolic representation of letter A using Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange code is 2. However, manufactures have added an eight bit to this coding scheme, which can now provide for characters. This 8-bit coding scheme is referred to as an 8-bit American standard code for information interchange. The symbolic representation of letter A using this scheme is In mathematics, the four basic arithmetic operations applied on numbers are addition, subtraction, multiplications and division.

In computers, the same operations are performed inside the central processing unit by the arithmetic and logic unit ALU. However, many other numeral systems exist and you might have heard about or seen others, like hexadecimal numbers for example: These hexadecimal or binary numbers can easily be converted to the well-known decimal numbers.

Other numeral systems exist because there are specific uses where a certain numeral system is easier to use and offers advantages over another. Binary and hexadecimal numbers are widely used in computer science. Binary numbers can be considered the very basic representation of a number in an electronic device.

This will help to explain why binary numbers are so important. The very first computers used binary numbers, and they are still used today. Every computer is made up of many electronic components. That is why a basic knowledge of electronics is needed to understand how and why binary numbers are used in computers.

A computer is built with many connections and components, which are used to transfer and store data, as well as communicate with other components. It can be stored on a computer disk using tiny areas magnetically charged with north and south - a bit like you find on a bar magnet.

One direction stands for 1, and the other direction stands for 0. When we say data is 'digitised' we mean it is turned into 1s and 0s for storage. Using just on and off to send messages might seem very limiting.

How can a computer process everything it does with just two signals? Even in Victorian times, people used sequences of on and off to communicate. They sent messages through the electric telegraph and these messages had to be converted into Morse code. Morse code is a series of dots and dashes that represent all the letters of the alphabet, numbers and punctuation. The telegraph used a switch that was either on or off. The person listening at the far end of a telegraph wire could tell if the switch was on or off.

By changing the length of time it was on, the person listening could tell if it was a 'dot' a short signal or a 'dash' a longer signal. Morse code allowed the transmission of coded messages though cables over great distance, just with a series of dots and dashes, or on and off signals. Binary is just another code except that instead of dots and dashes you can use 0s and 1s to represent numbers and letters.